Learning how to get organized and put things in the proper place. I suspect that I’ll come back and add things like naming conventions. But this is what I got so far for organizing the information gathered during a pen test, in a directory.
As few nmap scans as possible, and name them after the network or if there is something else that makes sense. So the files may be named 192.168.10.10.gnnmap and so on.
Ping files are named the same way, but are prefixed with ping-
enum files are for enumerating a domain controller. These are prefixed with enum- and end with -dc
Services are IP addresses and the file is named with the service-host
All data is immediately removed and encrypted off the machine and deleted as soon as reasonably possible.
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Sometimes you gotta run a command lots of times. So let a loop do it. Here’s one example:
for ip in $(cat ips.txt); do
nslookup $ip >> nslookups.txt
This will take a file of IP addresses (ips.txt) and run nslookup on each IP and output the results to nslookups.txt. Or just remove the >> nslookups.txt if you want the output to the screen.
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So today I had to convert IP addresses to hostnames. Seems easy enough, just use nslookup. But I had more than 400 IPs that needed to be converted. Ugh. So we need to do a little parsing.
First, take the IP addresses and get the host information. Let’s script this.
for ip in $(cat ips.txt); do
nslookup $ip >> nslookups.txt
This will do an nslookup for each of the IPs in the ips.txt file. Great! Now we need to parse it. This should be pretty easy to just look for “name=” except sometimes, there isn’t a hostname and then “name=” doesn’t appear. So instead we look for something else that is always in there, regardless of whether there is a hostname. It seems the string “arpa” matches this. So the next step is to find that and then cut the hostname, or something that doesn’t look like a hostname if there isn’t one.
grep arpa nslookups.txt | cut -d " " -f3 > hostnames.txt
When this finishes, the hostnames.txt file will have one string per line, either the hostname or the word “can’t”. At this point, do a find/replace for “can’t” and make it blank (since there isn’t a hostname for that IP).
Now you have two files, one with all the IPs and one with the hostnames. Put them in two Excel columns and match them up. There is one more problem here that I haven’t found a good solution for yet. Some of the IPs may have more than one hostname. So when you match up the columns in Excel, you’ll likely have more hostnames than IPs. Unfortunately the only solution I have so far is to read through the nslookups.txt file, find the entries with more than one hostname and then manually fix this in the Excel file. It takes a little bit of time, but definitely better than running nslookup manually hundreds of times.
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Had a little bit of trouble figuring it out, so adding the format that I found here:
# wfuzz -c -z file,/usr/files/userfile -z file,/usr/files/passfile –ntlm FUZZ:FUZ2Z https:///
In a nutshell, the -z coincides with the “FUZZ”. Each subsequent payload/FUZZ combination points to the FUZ2Z or FUZ3Z and so on.
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Once sshdroid (https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=berserker.android.apps.sshdroid&hl=en) is installed on a rooted device, start zipping around, like in /data/user/0/<packagename>/shared_prefs
But to log on, first might need to turn off “Enable root” in sshdroid. But after logging in to: ssh root@<ip> -p 2222 then simply su.
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ADB, the Android Debugging Bridge. If you want it to connect to Android > 4.2.2, or in other words, anything from this century, you can’t use anything less than ADB 1.0.31. By default, mobisec comes with 1.0.29, so even if the device is rooted, the device appears to be offline.
To upgrade adb: First download android-sdk-linux, from here: https://developer.android.com/studio/index.html near the bottom where is says “Just the tools” Once you download, unzip and all that, cd into android-sdk-linux and run: tools/android update sdk –no-ui
To get 32-bit adb: http://askubuntu.com/questions/710426/android-sdk-on-ubuntu-32bit, as of this writing, it resulted in version 1.0.32 of adb.
Installing Drozer: (Drozer site) Need the .apk for the device, and the platform. Both are available at the Drozer page. Start up the agent on the device, and it should be running on tcp:31415, then do the port forwarding in the platform. If the device and the platform connect, all good, and fire away!
Extra Drozer Modules: https://github.com/mwrlabs/drozer-modules
Drozer User’s Guide:
If we get:
mobisec@mobisec:~$ adb devices
List of devices attached
8753afe5 no permissions
Then stop and start the server with sudo.
Another good resource: https://securitycafe.ro/2015/07/08/mobile-penetration-testing-using-drozer/
Video overview by the developer: https://www.concise-courses.com/infosec/drozer/
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As others have done with their blog, I plan to use this as a repository of things I learn, not a “I’m a ninja on this topic, read this to learn everything!”, quite the opposite actually.
Testing android app, get the .apk file, simply download it onto the device and double click the file to install it. Once the file installs, it will be runnable.
To open an .apk file, change the extension to .zip and unzip it. That will include manifests, xml files of information and dex file(s), which is the actual java code that can be decompiled with something like dex2jar (included in Mobisec). Then simply use JD-GUI to read the class files!
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This is kinda cool. One way of enumerating usernames is to try a username against a login screen and have the error message tell you “That username doesn’t exist.” Or try to create a new account and have the system tell you “That username already exists.” But if a site is coded properly, it won’t give you that kind of info, making username enumeration (ie. figuring out valid and existing usernames) harder. So how about figuring them out with a timing attack?
When a username and password are submitted to a site for checking, they’re sent to a database and the dbms needs to find the username, and when it finds the row with the username, it checks the password hash against what exists in the database. However if the username doesn’t exist, the dbms doesn’t need to bother checking the password hash. It can just return the generic fail message. This small difference can be seen in the response time. In a recent test, I created a list of 50 usernames and 5 were known good. I interspersed the valid usernames in with all the invalid ones. I used the same password for every attempt, and ran them through Burp Intruder. The result was that the five good returned the slowest response times. There was one invalid password mixed in, but out of the six slowest responses, my five valid usernames were right there. Knowing this, I could do some open source searches for potential usernames and test them against a login screen. I did also test usernames of varying length and it didn’t change the results. Just in case of having a list with mostly valid usernames, I could also pad it with likely garbage usernames, things like “aaaaaaaaa” or “nekdhspfacshabdfks”. This one will be fun to try again in future assessments.
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In my first test, I worked with my manager. It was a web test and one that was pretty solid. However one fun thing was something I saw in a presentation at BSides Baltimore last week. A bad password policy may be a low finding. A lack of bad auth attempt lockout feature may be a low finding. A username enumeration may be a low finding. However, if a site has all three? That is a critical finding. If you can enumerate a list of valid usernames (just check LinkedIn for names and figure out the username format) and then throw the top 1000 passwords against a list of usernames, you’ll get in.
Some other stuff too, but also wrote the report and sent it in. Looking forward to the next one!
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I got a job as a penetration tester, which I think is really exciting. It is a job that I get excited about. One that causes frustration and a feeling of accomplishment. I’ll officially start on April 11th. My plan is to track my progress here, and document things that I learn, in general.
I contacted some other friends who are pentesters and asked for their advice, ideas on things they wish they knew when they got started. I was given two great pieces of advice on things to read or study up on. One was to read the publications on GitHub from Cure53. Today I read their whitepaper on X-Frame-Options and various ways to still bypass the clickjacking protection it provides. I’m looking forward to reading the others, once I finish the other recommendation…The Tangled Web! Continue reading
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